Oleander

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Description

Nerium oleander is the only species currently classified in the genus Nerium. It is most commonly known as oleander, from its superficial resemblance to the unrelated olive Olea. The ancient city of Volubilis in Morocco took its name from the old Latin name for the flower.

Name

Common names: Oleander
Binomial name: Nerium oleander
Synonyms: Nerium indicum, Nerium odorum
Japanese name: 西洋夾竹桃(セイヨウキョウチクトウ)
English name: oleander

Scientific classification

Order:     Gentianalesリンドウ目
Family:    Apocynaceaeキョウチクトウ科
Subfamily: Apocynoideaeキョウチクトウ亜科
Genus:     Nerium L. キョウチクトウ属
Species:   N. oleanderセイヨウキョウチクトウ

Habitat&Range

Distribution: Mediterranean region native original. Naturalized a broad area to the Arabian peninsula, southern Asia, and as far East as in southern parts of China. It is so widely cultivated that no precise region of origin has been identified, though southwest Asia has been suggested. It typically occurs around dry stream beds. To Japan, it is said that it descended in the middle of the Edo period through China.

Description

Tree height: 300-500cm, Flowering period: June to September, Flower color: Red, pink, and white, Flower in diameter: 4-5cm, Leaf length: 6-20 cm

Nerium oleander is a nonhardy evergreen shrub (or small tree) which makes the flower which has perfume in late summer from a rainy season bloom. It is in the dogbane family Apocynaceae, toxic in all its parts, and it is one of the most poisonous of commonly grown garden plants.

A leaf is a form where both ends sharpened with long elliptical type. It is slightly thin and hard. A fine hollow is located in the back of a leaf and I open a stoma to the inner side.

A flower will bloom from June [ about ] till September. The base of a petal is cylindrical, its tip opens level, it is divided into five valves, and each turns at it in the shape of a propeller a little. There is a cultivated species of a large number, such as pink, yellow, and white, and there is also a double-pedaled kind.

In Japan, since there is no suitable pollen intermediary or it says that it is only as the clones which bred by the cutting, it succeeds in pollination, and fruits do not much fruit, but fruits fruit very rarely. The shape of fruits are long and slender horn, fruits break perpendicularly, when it is ripening, and a seed with long brown down comes out from inside.

Toxicity

Although Nerium oleander is outstanding garden plants, there is oral toxicity and cautions are required in not using for cooking or livestock not eating in the case of an outdoor activity. There is toxicity also in a flower, a leaf, a branch, a root, the sections of all fruits, and surrounding soil. The smoke which burned the raw tree is also poison. Even if it uses leaf soil, in order that toxicity may remain, also when making it into leaf soil for one year, it requires cautions. Therefore Nerium oleander has historically been considered a poisonous plant because some of its compounds may exhibit toxicity, especially to animals, when consumed in high amounts.Oleandrin is one of the toxins present in Oleande.


The Orleans drine compounds (oleandrin, C32H48O9) has an effect similar to digitalis. In the case of humans, the fatal dose of the Orleans drine compounds (oleandrin, C32H48O9) is 0.30mg/kg, and also exceeds potassium cyanide.  

Among these compounds are oleandrin and oleandrigenin, known as cardiac glycosides, which are known to have a narrow therapeutic index and can be toxic when ingested.

Effects of poisoning

As toxic symptoms, about 1 hour after taking in, there are a colicky pain, diarrhea, tachycardia, ataxia, loss of appetite, etc. While it has the effect of a medicine in folk remedies, it is also a strong toxic plant which causes a heart attack, diarrhea, a spasm, etc.

Reactions to ingestion of this plant can include both gastrointestinal and cardiac effects.

The gastrointestinal effects can consist of nausea and vomiting, excess salivation, abdominal pain, diarrhea that may or may not contain blood, and especially in horses, colic.

Cardiac reactions consist of irregular heart rate, sometimes characterized by a racing heart at first that then slows to below normal further along in the reaction. The heart may also beat erratically with no sign of a specific rhythm.

Extremities may become pale and cold due to poor or irregular circulation.

Reactions to poisonings from this plant can also affect the central nervous system. These symptoms can include drowsiness, tremors or shaking of the muscles, seizures, collapse, and even coma that can lead to death.

Oleander sap can cause skin irritations, severe eye inflammation and irritation, and allergic reactions characterized by dermatitis.

Poisoning example

There is an example poisoned instead of chopsticks using the branch. There is an example out of which the deceased came to the spit-roasted skewer in France using the branch of Oleander. According to the Ministry of Environment, in Japan, asthmatic occurrence is reported in 1970.

Treatment

Poisoning and reactions to oleander plants are evident quickly, requiring immediate medical care in suspected or known poisonings of both humans and animals. Induced vomiting and gastric lavage are protective measures to reduce absorption of the toxic compounds. Charcoal may also be administered to help absorb any remaining toxins. Further medical attention may be required and will depend on the severity of the poisoning and symptoms. Temporary cardiac pacing will be required in many cases (usually for a few days) till the toxin is excreted.

Since it is poisonous even if toxicity is quite strong and gets ashes and leaf soil which were burned, the harvest of vegetables needs to be warned of the scissors used for pruning. It is needed to wash them well.

The act which you use for chopsticks or use for a skewer is a suicidal act. Children need that washing a hand etc. makes it careful, if it touches which must not be used as a mouth by any means.

Use in medicine

Folk and traditional medicine

Various cardiac glycoside, such as the Orleans drine compounds, is contained in oleander, and it has a strong heart effect. There are also other diuretic effects. The effect of a medicine to a blow is known for a folk treatment. However, since the species have very strong toxicity, the amateur should not do a prescription.

Therapeutic efficacy

Drugs derived from Nerium oleander have been investigated as a treatment for cancer. According to the American Cancer Society the trials have produced no evidence of benefit, but they did however cause adverse side-effects.

Uses

Uses and effects

Since it is strong for dryness or air pollution, it is used for a roadside tree etc. Probably, it is planted, because it is strong for dryness or air pollution and a flower is also beautiful. In Hiroshima, although it was said that plants did not spring up for 75 years by an atomic bomb once, either, it got the symbol of the revival from an atomic bomb as a flower which bloomed promptly in contamination soil burning, and was specified as the flower of Hiroshima.

Keynote

A board range of skin conditions, especially of the scalp, respond to Oleander. Many gastrointestinal conditions and even paralysis are covered by the remedy.

Generalities

- It has a marked action on nervous system, heart, skin and digestive tract. - Paralytic conditions, with cramp like contractions of upper extremities. - Paresis after infantile paralysis. - General crampings. - Numbness. - Weakness, with trembling, in nursing women. - Sense of vibrations. - Emptiness in stomach and chest after eating, amel. brandy. - Hemiplegia. - Paralytic rigidity. - Sopor. - Unable to speak or speaks with difficulty. - Discharges involuntary

Mind

- Memory weak - Intolerance of contradiction - Anger, followed by speedy repentance, Morose - Slow perception, slow comprehension, weak memory. - Sadness, with lack of confidence and power. - Peevish; distraction.

Head

- ERUPTION N SCALP, DANDRUFF, LARGE PATCHES, with falling of hair, - Corrosive itching agg. night, undressing. - Seborrhea and psoriasis of scalp especially at margin of hair. - Humid, fetid spots behind ears [Graph.; Petrol.] and occiput, with red, rough herpetic spots in front. - Vertigo; agg. looking fixedly at an object or looking down, turning to either side in bed; with diplopia. - Headache > looking crossways, sideways or squinting - Headache < reading and holding up head. < Heat

Eyes

- Sensation as if drawn back into head. - Can see objects only when looking at them sideways. - Diplopia. - Lachrymation; when reading.

Face

- Pale. - Sunken, with blue rings around eyes. (Phos.ac.) - Numb upper lip. - Lower jaw trembles when yawning.

Throat

- Numbness ascending from throat externally to head. - As if a cool wind blowing on throat (left).

Chest

- Palpitation, with weakness and empty feeling in chest. > brandy. - Dyspnoea. - Obtuse stitches in chest. - Pains on stooping.

Stomach

- Empty sensation in stomach not amel. by eating (Sep). - Canine hunger with hurried eating, especially during diarrhea (Petr, Sulph). - Empty feeling even after eating, amel. brandy; from nursing. - with hurried eating, without appetite. - Throbbing in pit. - Thirst, desires cold water. - Extreme debility of digestive power. - Empty belching. - Vomiting of food; greenish water.

Abdomen

- Paralysis of intestines, food passes undigested. - DIARRHEA followed by hard stool, undigested, involuntary, < hot weather, fruit (acid). - Burning pain in anus, before and after stool. - Flatus like rotten eggs, undigested faeces.

Skin

- VIOLENT ITCHING ERUPTIONS, SCALY, SCURFY. - Itching < undressing. - Smarting as if raw after scratching - Very sensitive, slightest friction causes pain. - Numb.

Extremities

- Numbness of limbs. - Weakness of lower limbs. - Painless paralysis, < upper limbs. - Crampy contraction of upper limbs; in paralysis. - Veins on hands swollen. - Hands tremble, while writing. - Feet constantly cold. - Fingers rigid and thumb into palm. - Limbs stiff and cold. - Swelling, burning stiffness of fingers. - Oedema. Stiffness of joints.

Urinary

- Involuntary urination.

Fever

- Heat from mental exertion.

Modalities

Worse - Rubbing. - Undressing. - After suckling. - Looking side-ways. - Friction of clothes. Better - Looking sideways. - Brandy.

Food and drinks - Aversion: Cheese. - < ACID OR CITRUS FRUITS, tomatoes.

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